Exploring Major Site Plans and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions.
Major Site Plans and Neighborhood Meetings
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Synthesis of Lipids in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
A major site for the synthesis of membrane lipids is in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. The ER is also responsible for protein synthesis, and it interacts with all other cellular organelles. It is a soft membrane system that is found in the cytoplasm of all living organisms.
In the ER, enzymes synthesize most of the cell’s glycerophospholipids and fatty acids. This synthesis is coordinated by complex interactions with other organelles and the cytosol.
For example, the ER can transport the fatty acid chain substrate of PtdCho synthesis to mitochondria, where it is converted into phosphatidylcholine. It can also transport phospholipids between the ER and Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and lipid droplets.
The ER can also interact with the nucleus to regulate gene expression. In particular, it can bring RNA into contact with a complex of proteins called the Sec61 translocator, which helps bind and fold incoming mRNAs. The RNA can then enter the membrane to be translated into a protein.
Synthesis of Steroids in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), like the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is a membrane organelle present in all cells. However, sER is distinguished by its lack of ribosomes. It is also associated with the production of fats and steroid hormones. Cells that secrete these substances, such as those of the testis, ovary, and adrenal cortex, contain a large amount of sER.
The sER is particularly important for lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and the storage and regulation of intracellular calcium concentration. It also contains enzymes that help detoxify drugs and poisons, particularly in liver cells. These enzymes, called cytochrome P450s, add a hydroxyl group to drug molecules, making them more water-soluble and easier to flush from our bodies. The sER is also responsible for the release of calcium ions during muscle contraction. This occurs when the sER is stimulated by nerve impulses. It is also involved in regulating cholesterol levels and transferring materials to the Golgi complex.
Synthesis of Natural Wax in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Beeswax is a highly complex substance containing over 300 individual chemical components. Beeswax consists of monoesters, diesters, triesters and hydroxymonoesters, acid esters, free fatty acids and a variety of wax polymer structures (Goodman 2003). The composition of the integument has important implications for the insect’s ability to withstand weather conditions and other external stimuli that can cause injury to the insect.
The ER has long tubules that connect the cell’s cytoplasm with extracellular spaces. It also contains a network of junctional cisternae that form an open area near the cell’s center and are aligned with specific regions of the myofibrils.
In epidermal cells that produce comb wax, the ER is surrounded by a membrane containing many mitochondria and peroxisomes. These organelles are specialized for energy production and metabolic reactions. SER has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface, and it has little in common with rough endoplasmic reticulum. Its functions include synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and steroid hormones; detoxification of medications and poisons; and storage of calcium ions.
Synthesis of Hormones in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is part of the larger endomembrane system. The ER is involved in the processing of proteins in the cell, and it also serves as an important quality control gate for the correct destination of a protein.
The ER is a large network of flattened sacs, tubules and vesicles that are connected to one another by membranes. It is present in all eukaryotic cells, and it can be divided into two parts: rough ER and smooth ER. Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface, giving it a bumpy appearance under the microscope. Smooth ER does not have ribosomes, and it looks smooth under the microscope.
The smooth ER is found in a variety of cells, including animal cells and plant cells. It is most prevalent in liver cells that process harmful chemicals, in endocrine system cells such as those in the adrenal gland that produce steroid hormones and in excitable cells like neurons and muscle cells that use Ca2+ signaling. The smooth ER is involved in the synthesis of lipids, steroid hormones and carbohydrates, the detoxification of natural metabolic waste products and drugs, and the regulation of calcium concentration within the cell.